5 Best DNA Tests for Ancestry (2019 UPDATE) Read This BEFORE You Buy

Best DNA Test for Ancestry

How to Choose the DNA Testing Kit That’s Best for You

Here are the best DNA tests

Updated: October 2019

If you’ve read all the DNA test reviews, and are still confused, read on. This guide will give you the answers you need to those and many more questions. But first, here’s a comparison table of all the services mentioned in this article:

I’ve done the hard work…the best DNA tests for 2019

AncestryDNA MyHeritage FamilyTree DNA 23andMe LivingDNA
Website View Website View Website View Website View Website View Website
Best for Genealogy, matches, ethnicity regions (view website) Global matches, tools for advanced genetic genealogy (view website) Distant ancestry, YDNA, mtDNA (view website) Genetic health testing (view website) British Isles ancestry (view website)
Price See latest price
See latest price
sale ends tomorrow!
See latest price
See latest price
See latest price
Ethnicity results Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ethnic Regions (click for more detail) 500+ 42 24 1,000+ 80 (in depth for UK)
Family Matching Yes Yes Yes Yes Limited
Database Size 15 million 1.4 million 850k 1 million None
Y-DNA Test No No Yes Broad haplogroup, no matching Broad haplogroup, no matching
mtDNA Test No No Yes Broad haplogroup, no matching Broad haplogroup, no matching
Collection Method Saliva Cheek swab Cheek swab Saliva Cheek swab
Chromosome Browser No Yes Yes Yes No
Raw Data Upload No Yes Yes No Yes
Health Info No For extra fee No For extra fee No

* Prices may vary; check websites for the latest prices before ordering. In addition to the cost of the test, most companies charge $10-12 for shipping. We earn commissions for purchases made through links in this post which help support this site.

DNA Testing Buyer’s Guide

For centuries, genealogists have relied on oral and written records to trace their family trees. But around the year 2000, the age of genealogical DNA testing was launched. This provided genealogists and family historians with an opportunity to use well-established scientific methods to prove relationships and ancestry.

Compared to paper records, which may be incomplete or inaccurate, DNA testing is precise. But is it right for you?

And if so, which test is right for you? How do you take it? How much does it cost? Which company should you use?

What is DNA?

Before we jump into DNA testing, let’s talk about what DNA is.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is found in every living cell everywhere. It is a long chemical chain that tells our cells how to grow and act.

DNA is divided up into chromosomes, or major blocks, which are in turn divided into genes.

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 in all) arranged in a double helix.

We each get 23 chromosomes from our mother and 23 from our father.

In humans, the 23rd chromosome is either an X-chromosome or a Y-chromosome, and determines if we are male or female.

Women have two X-chromosomes, while men have one X-chromosome and one Y-chromosome.

It may sound a little confusing, but this is important to understand, because there are different types of DNA testing.

Types of DNA Tests

There are three main types of DNA tests used in genealogy.

Each one works a little differently, and tells you different things.

Naturally, that means that each one has its advantages and disadvantages.

Autosomal DNA Tests

Autosomal DNA is that DNA that does not contribute to gender; in other words, the first 22 pairs of chromosomes.

Because it does not rely on the 23rd chromosome, autosomal DNA tests can be done in both men and women with the same results.

What is an autosomal DNA test?

Autosomal DNA tests are by far the most popular for consumers. This is the test that gives you ethnicity estimates as well as family matches.

This test examines single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), or the different “shapes” of individual nucleotides, small chunks of DNA.

Genealogical autosomal DNA tests examine about 700,000 SNPs to determine how closely related you are to someone else.

Remember that half our DNA comes from our father and half from our mother.

Going back in generations, that means that roughly one-fourth of our DNA comes from each of our grandparents, one-eighth from each of our great-grandparents, and so on. These percentages are never exact since DNA inheritance and recombination is completely random.

The further you go back, the less DNA you have inherited from a particular ancestor, and the harder it is to prove that you are related.

So autosomal DNA tests are only useful for about 6-8 generations.

What It Tells You

Most people who do an autosomal test do so for ethnicity estimates. Autosomal tests will give you a set of ethnicity results based on how your DNA compares to reference populations created by the testing company.

For genealogical purposes, the main use of autosomal DNA testing is to find relatives and determine how closely related you are to someone else.

This can be especially useful if you know very little about your parents or grandparents and are having a hard time locating living relatives.

Many times, relatives located by the test are researching the same family lines as you, and you can share research with them.

Every company mentioned in this guide offers autosomal DNA tests. Again, it is by far the most popular test for consumers.

Mitochondrial DNA Testing (mtDNA)

Mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA, is genetic material inside mitochondria, small components found inside every cell and which have their own separate DNA strands.

mtDNA is passed down exclusively from females. Both males and females inherit their mtDNA from their mothers, therefore anyone can take this test.

Because mtDNA does not include a combination of DNA from both parents, it does not change with every generation.

In fact, mtDNA changes extremely slowly – it might remain exactly the same for dozens of generations!

How It Works

While autosomal DNA testing looks at the 22 pairs of autosomes inside the cell nucleus, mtDNA testing looks at the DNA inside the mitochondria which exists outside the cell nucleus.

Among other things, that means the test only has to examine about 16,500 genetic base pairs, instead of the 3.2 billion base pairs found in our DNA.

The test normally looks at only specific portions of the mtDNA and compares them to established samples.

What It Tells You

mtDNA gives very precise and accurate ancestry results, but only for the maternal line.

results, but only for the maternal line.

That is, it tells you about your mother’s mother’s mother’s mother, and so on, back through time.

But it can’t tell you about any of your other ancestors, such as your mother’s father or any of your father’s ancestors.

An mtDNA test will also identify how closely related you are to a haplogroup.

A haplogroup is basically a group of people with a single common ancestor.

Historically, everyone living in the same region might belong to the same haplogroup, or very closely related ones.

This means that your haplogroup can identify where your maternal line originated.

It could also help you locate distant relatives, but some of them could be very distant (thousands of years).

In some cases, mtDNA can remain nearly identical for 50 generations or more. This makes it difficult to use mtDNA matching for genealogical purposes. A perfect match means you are related, but you might be 48th cousins!

The only company to offer individual mitochondrial DNA kits is FamilyTreeDNALiving DNA  and 23andMe bundle very basic mtDNA testing with their autosomal DNA test.

Y-DNA Tests

The 23rd human chromosome has two versions, the X and the Y.

Women have two X-chromosomes, while men have one X and one Y.

Y-DNA testing kits examine only the Y-chromosome, therefore only males can take this test. If you’re a woman who wants to test your father’s Y-DNA male line, you’ll need to test your father, uncle, brother, male cousin, etc. Basically any male on your direct paternal line. Testing the oldest generation possible is always best.

Because you can only get a Y-chromosome from your father, and he from his father, that means it tends to change very little over time.

How It Works

There are actually two sub-tests with Y-DNA testing.

The first is a short tandem repeat (STR) test. The STR test categorizes sections of the DNA according to how often a certain genetic pattern repeats.

The second is a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) test. It works the same way as in autosomal DNA testing, but it only tests about 30,000 SNPs instead of 700,000.

What It Tells You

The STR test produces a summary of your haplotype. This can be compared to someone else’s results to determine how far back your most recent common ancestor might have lived.

An STR test is often used to determine how closely two people with the same surname are related, if at all.

The SNP test is more detailed, and among other things assigns you to a haplogroup.

A haplogroup is a group of people with one common ancestor and who lived in one or more specific regions.

Both Y-chromosome tests can help you locate relatives.

But like mtDNA, because the Y-chromosome changes slowly, you might be related many generations back. Although Y-DNA tests are much more useful for genealogy than mtDNA.

And because the Y-chromosome is only passed down through males, the test can only tell you about your direct paternal line.

The only company to offer individual Y-DNA testing kits is FamilyTreeDNA, which has three options depending on how detailed a test you want.

Y-DNA testing is especially useful for adoptees. It’s also a great ancestry test if you think you have jewish ancestry.

Living DNA and 23andMe bundles very basic Y-DNA testing with their autosomal DNA tests, but provide much less detailed results than FamilyTreeDNA.

Choosing The Test That’s Right For You

With three tests to choose from, how do you decide which is best for you?

It all depends on what you want to know.

Autosomal DNA

For most people, the autosomal DNA test is the clear winner, and it is the one test that every testing company offers.

Because your autosomal DNA comes from all of your ancestors, this test is good for finding a range of ancestors and living relatives.

It can also provide you with reasonable estimates of the ethnicity of your ancestors, or the regions of the world where they lived.

The main drawback to autosomal DNA is that it gets so jumbled together after a few generations that it becomes unreliable the further you try to go back.

Most of the time, an autosomal DNA test is only useful for about 6-8 generations.

Autosomal DNA can provide some great leads on finding others who are researching the same family tree as you.


Because mtDNA comes to you only from your mother, and from her mother, it only helps you trace one line.

You can use it to prove a common ancestor with someone else, but only in a direct maternal line.

It can, however, trace that line back a very long way – sometimes 10,000 years or more.

That can provide evidence that your mother’s maternal line came from a very specific region or ethnicity.

But it is less useful when finding living relatives.


The Y-DNA test is sort of like the mtDNA test, but it follows a direct paternal line instead.

That means a Y-DNA test can tell you about your father’s father’s father’s father, and many generations before that, but not about any of your other ancestors.

Y-DNA is most useful if you want to prove a connection to a certain ancestor.

Say that you have a common surname, like Smith, and want to know if you are related to someone else named Smith.

A Y-DNA can prove (or disprove) that the two of you are related.

Like the mtDNA test, Y-DNA may let you trace a line back for dozens of generations.

It can also tell you the ethnicity or region of origin of your paternal line.

One major drawback to a Y-DNA test is that only males have Y-DNA, so only males can take the test.

However, a woman can still find Y-DNA results by having a close male relative take it for her, such as her brother, father, paternal uncle, or cousin by a paternal uncle (but not her son, since he got his Y-chromosome from his paternal line, not hers).

In the same way, you can trace other paternal lines by asking an appropriate family member to take the test and share the results with you.

Ethnicity Testing

All three of the DNA tests can provide you with information on where your ancestors lived.

But the information they provide varies from test to test.

  • Y-DNA and mtDNA tests will link you to very specific genetic lines, but keep in mind, they represent only a fraction of your family tree.
  • Autosomal DNA testing is what’s used for ethnicity testing of your entire family tree.

The companies that provide DNA testing divide the world up into regions in different ways. Each company has different ways of doing this.

That means that two different testing companies may give you different ethnicity estimates for the exact same DNA.

As more and more data get collected, companies update their regions, too.

Some companies have had problems with their ethnicity estimates in the past. AncestryDNA, for example, used to be well-known for overestimating Scandinavian ancestry.

But the accuracy of estimates is constantly improving as more data are collected, and there’s no clear indication that one company is more accurate than the others.

When a company does improve its ethnicity estimates, your profile will automatically be updated, too. You won’t have to retake the test to get the new results, but you will have to visit their site. Chances are they will not email you with the update.

Regions Versus Countries

It’s important to keep in mind that any DNA test will typically give a region of origin, not a country.

That’s because countries have changed many times throughout human history, and even within your lifetime!

Consider the case of Alsace-Lorraine, a 5,600 square mile region on the border of France and Germany.

Before the 17th century, the area was entirely Germanic (even though Germany as a country didn’t exist at the time).

During the 17th and 18th centuries, it was annexed by France.

In 1871, following the Franco-Prussian War, it was annexed by Germany.

Following World War I, it was returned to France.

So how can you say if your ancestors from that area were German or French using only DNA?

You can’t.

You can only say that your ancestors came from that region.

And because of all the migration and intermarrying across borders, the results you get aren’t going to be that specific, anyway.

Chances are they’ll bundle Germany and France together, and simply tell you those ancestors came from continental western Europe.

Native American Ancestry

​Can DNA testing determine Native American ancestry?

Many people in the United States want to know if they have any Native American ancestry, and if so, from what tribes.

The good news is DNA testing can, in some cases, tell you if you have Native American ancestors.

An autosomal DNA test will provide an ethnicity report, but keep in mind it only goes back about 6-8 generations.

Y-DNA and mtDNA tests go back much further, but only in one single family line each.

The bad news is none of the tests can tell you what tribe your ancestors may have come from, nor can they be used as proof of ancestry when it comes to applying for tribal rolls.

The best any of them can say is the general region of North or South America where your ancestors likely lived.

See our complete guide to Native American DNA tests.

Getting Started With a DNA Test

If you’ve read this far, then chances are you are seriously considering having a genealogical DNA test done.

But I’m sure you still have a lot of questions, such as which DNA kit is best, how much it costs, how long it takes, and more.

You’ve got questions, we’ve got answers.

How is the DNA Collected?

DNA is collected either with a cheek swab or a saliva sample, depending on which company you use.

For the most part, there’s no advantage to one method over the other. 

However, if the person being tested is very young (too young to be told to spit in the tube) or very old (and can’t produce enough saliva), the cheek swab might be easier.

Right now, the AncestryDNA and 23andMe DNA test kits use saliva samples; other companies use cheek swabs.

What Happens Next?

Once you’ve gathered your DNA sample, simply return it to the company for processing.

It will usually take six to ten weeks for your sample to be processed – but could take longer after the holidays since DNA tests are a popular gift.

Once your test is finished, you’ll be emailed with the test results.

Depending on the company and the test, your results may include:

  • your raw data
  • ethnicity estimates
  • lists of potential relatives

How Much Does It Cost

Prices vary based on company and test.

Autosomal DNA tests by themselves usually run $69 to $99.

The only company to offer separate Y-DNA and mtDNA tests is Family Tree DNA. These tests will cost you a few hundred dollars, depending on the number of markers tested.

As mentioned above, LivingDNA and 23andMe bundle in basic Y-DNA and mtDNA tests. But they only test a limited number of markers, and do not provide any matching. They really only give you haplogroup information.

23andMe offers a combined genealogy and health report for a single fee.

Health reports can identify if you carry the genes for a few dozen different diseases or conditions, which could signal future health risks for you or your children.​

In addition to the cost of the test, most companies also charge $10 to $12 for shipping.

See the table at the top of this page for a full comparison.

Buy It As A Gift

You can also buy any of these DNA testing kits as a gift for other family members. Amazingly, you can even buy an ancestry test for your dog! (see our guide to dog DNA tests here)

This is a good way to increase accuracy by comparing test results.

It also lets women use the Y-DNA test by having a male relative take it for them.

Choosing a Company

The number of options for genealogical DNA testing services has increased over the years.

All of these testing kits sites offer autosomal DNA testing.

All of them will provide you with a geographical breakdown of where your ancestors lived.

Beyond that, each one has its pros and cons.

Here are five biggest companies, listed based on how useful overall I think they are for genealogy.


AncestryDNA is the best choice when it comes to genealogy. They have the most extensive database of DNA results for comparison and many other features for genealogists. Read our full AncestryDNA review.

Ancestry DNA Test Kit
Pros Cons
  • Database of over 15 million customers for matching
  • Very strong genealogical community
  • Can connect with matches through anonymous email and message boards
  • Can link your DNA results to your online family tree
  • Stores your results indefinitely
  • No longer offers separate mtDNA or Y-DNA tests
  • Members can opt out of sharing their DNA results, so it may be harder to find and contact matches
  • Requires an ongoing subscription to view family trees of your matches
  • Does not allow raw data uploads from other sites

You do not have to have an Ancestry subscription in order to take their test or see your results. You also do not need a subscription to build your own family tree.

A subscription allows you to view genealogical records, view the family tree’s of your matches, and compare your tree with your match to find common ancestors. There are of course many other features on the research side of your genealogy.

Ancestry offers a 14 day free trial which you can get here.

MyHeritage DNA

MyHeritage is a great choice if you’re looking for matches outside the United States. They seem to have the biggest database of international customers. They also offer some pretty neat tools such as auto clustering and a chromosome browser.

Read our full MyHeritage DNA review. Also, check out our complete comparison of MyHeritage vs AncestryDNA.

MyHeritage DNA Test Kit
Pros Cons
  • Largest database of international customers to be matched with
  • Link your DNA results to your online family tree
  • Allows free upload of raw data from other sites
  • Covers 42 ethnic regions
  • Relatively small (but rapidly growing) database compared to other sites. Currently 1.4 million


The best for distant ancestry (beyond 6-8 generations), and paternity testing. One major perk is, even if you do get your testing done by a different company, FamilyTreeDNA lets you upload your raw data into their system as well. Read our full Family Tree DNA review.

), and paternity testing. One major perk is, even if you do get your testing done by a different company, FamilyTreeDNA lets you upload your raw data into their system as well. Read our full Family Tree DNA review.

Family Tree DNA Test Kit
Pros Cons
  • Only company to offer all three tests individually
  • Only company to offer Y-DNA and mtDNA matching
  • Cheek swab DNA collection (much easier for babies and elderly)
  • Allows free upload of raw data from tests run for other sites
  • Has a chromosome browser, which lets you compare two or more sets of DNA results to see segment overlap
  • Surname, haplogroup and other group projects you can join
  • Has a smaller database of people than sites like Ancestry (since it’s not as popular to the mass market), so you might miss some matches
  • Does not offer health-related testing


In terms of genealogy, 23andMe would not be my first choice. The main advantage of 23andMe is health testing which means that most people who test there aren’t as interested in family history or communicating with matches as compared to sites like Ancestry.

It is the only site that offers health-related DNA testing. Read our complete 23andMe review. Also check out our complete comparison of 23andMe vs Ancestry.

23andMe DNA Test Kit
Pros Cons
  • Only site to offer health and wellness reports
  • Has a large database of more than 1 million customers
  • Includes a chromosome browser for comparing results
  • Very limited genealogical community compared to other sites
  • No Y-DNA or mtDNA matching
  • Does not allow upload of raw data from other sites
  • Health and wellness test is not part of the basic fee, it costs extra

Living DNA

If you have any British or Irish ancestry, you’ll definitely want to do an ancestry test with LivingDNA. Based in the UK, LivingDNA specializes in “high definition” DNA testing in the British Isles and can narrow into the exact regions of your ancestry in the British Isles.

Because of the lack of a customer database (and matches), I would also test with another company in addition to LivingDNA.

See our complete LivingDNA review.

Living DNA Test Kit
Pros Cons
  • Divides the world into many more, smaller regions than other services
  • Has 21 regional categories for the British Isles alone, and 80 (in depth for UK) worldwide
  • No separate autosomal DNA only test, so highest overall price
  • Very limited customer database

Which Test Is Best For You?

It depends on your goals…

Here are the best DNA tests

Updated: October 2019

Is It Worth It?

So is genealogical DNA testing right for you?

In the end, is it really worth the cost and bother?


Even if genealogy is only an occasional hobby for you, these tests can provide you with some very enlightening insights into your family history.

And for the serious genealogist, it is getting to the point where they are nearly essential.

Genealogical DNA testing is finally accurate enough, inexpensive enough, and useful enough for connecting with your family. I recommend it to everyone interested in learning more about their roots.

External References & Citations

Updated October 16, 2019

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Hi Mark, Very Interesting article and advice! Thank you! I am just generally interested in DNA testing and genealogy/ancestry. Thought I should start with my 91 year old mother. Was thinking of just getting an autosomal test for her, but wondering if I should spring for more details just in case I really want to get into this? She is the last of her siblings. I do have one full brother and one full sister surviving, and well as some first male cousins.

I don’t suppose DNA samples are kept….

Thank you for taking the time to advise. Joan


Hi, thanks for the article this helps in my choice. I want to take one of these tests so much,trouble is that i think companies like ancestry and 23andme will lable me as “Broadly Eastern European”. I’m a Ukranian Sval and I’m looking for the best kit for me. I think that companies that are more specific in thier findings of Y DNA and M DNA would be better. Any advice?


I notice that Family Tree DNA covers 24 Geographic Regions 24,My Heritage covers 42 areas and Nat Geo covers 60 areas.
On the surface it appears that I should go with Nat Geo as its information would be more detailed.Does this make sense?

Anne Kaufman

Hello Mark, Thanks for your very informative descriptions of the various DNA tests and companies. I’m tracing my husband’s line and have gotten as far as his great-great-grandfather (four generations on his paternal line). That is where we are stuck. His 4th generation ancestor was born in Friesdorf, Germany in 1829 (no birth record or knowledge of his parents or siblings that we have found). The Y-DNA test appears be the best one to use but my husband thinks his ancestor may have Jewish roots (the spelling of his last name contains two sets of double consonants; although not uncommon… Read more »


Hi Mark,

I am from Africa. I believe most of these tests are best suited for people living in the western world or regions that kept a good record of their lineage. Also since most users will be from the western world (America, Europe), is there a better test for people from Africa?



hi mark, i am from india, which test will be fine for me, just wanna check my root… pls guide… thnks…

Jane Crocker

Really a great site!You answered the questions I didn’t even know to ask!Thanks alot.

Lorrie Scott

My dad was a Crocker!!


Hi Mark, Thanks for the informative article. I’ve done an autosomal with Ancestry.com and am considering the m and y tests (my brother would do that one). All 4 of my grandparents were European-born and came to the US in the 19-teens. I’m looking for your advice on which company has the best international data base, for finding records, and finding living overseas relatives. Would you suggest sticking with Ancestry (I’ll need to resubscribe and to World Explorer, which I haven’t yet checked out) – though Ancestry doesn’t do the m and y tests or download data from other companies?… Read more »

Jim Pap

Hello Mark!

I am interested only in finding my roots. Which of the companies are more accurate or detailed for ethnicity?

I know that any company can’t tell me from which specific country I am, but i want an information as close as it can be on that.

Which company do you suggest?



Thank you for the great article but I’m still needing a little help to find the best Testing Service for me. I’m 100% Asian and I would like to find a Service that will help find the different countries my ancestors are from. My parents aren’t sure where their grandparents are from whether they’re Chinese, or Vietnamese. Which Service has the best results for knowing your different ethnicities instead of getting results that just tells me I’m 100% Southeast Asian. Thank you so much! Have a blessed day.


Great article, Mark. I’ve been doing genealogical research for some time now, and would like to try one of these DNA testing sites. In your opinion, which one would provide the most comprehensive information?


Wonderful article! My question: My paper trails show mostly european and scandinavian ancestory, but I have recently come accross someone who seems to think my 3rd great grandfather was hispanic. I don’t see it in any physical traits with myself or other family members. I would like to prove (or disprove) this connection. I was thinking about AncestoryDNA, what is your expert opinion? Thank you, Kristin


Thank you for this comprehensive explanation

Randy S. Scott

As an afro-amercian,this article gives me an unbiased view on DNA testing and the pros and cons.


Hello Mark, I am Hispanic/Caribbean… which means I supposedly have Native American (specifically Taino Indian), African, and Spanish (European). 3 completely different places in the world. I am also a female and I’m having a hard time figuring out which DNA test to choose from. I’d like it to be as specific as possible because I want to know what percentage I am of each and I’m sure there will be other places my DNA comes from. I’m most interested in Nat Geo or Family Tree but Family Tree options are confusing as to which I should get. Which DNA… Read more »


Hello Mark, great article xtrmely helpful. Got tested by MyHeritage and results were quite a surprise. Always believed I was a mix of Swiss, French and bit of north Italian… well with 41%english 21%irish 22%french 8%Italian etc. I do not know how I can come to this result since my family on mother and father side never left Switzerland. So I want to dig a little deeper with another test. Should it be Ancestry or LivingDNA.. ?? Thank you Mark

Paul L Doré

One last comment that I forgot. Why is HomeDNA not in the your list ?

I had never heard of them before this week. GenealogyBank had a special offer going that allowed me to upload my Ancestry Raw Data to them for 29 $ US.

I called them 3 times for assistance and info and the reponse wait time each time was less than a minute, helpful and courteous.

Their analysis is really interesting, and well presented. Unfortunately they were not taking MyHeritage DNA Raw Data so my wife’s second analysis couldn’t be processed.


Hi Mark, Thank you for the excellent breakdown of info and companies. Very helpful! And thank you for using correct terminology (data are). 🙂 I am interested in my ethnology and am looking for the autosomal DNA test with the finest scale regional breakdown that would apply to me. My father was 1st generation American of Lithuanian Jewish descent whose family made it out of Lithuania between WWI and WWII. We know less about my mother’s genealogy, who is also 1st generation American. Her father was French Canadian and was told he was also of Native American descent, and her… Read more »


Hi Mark, my name is Xoli from Africa. I like your article so much that I’m considering to get an autosomal DNA test. Thanks for such an informative article, keep up the good work!!!


Hey Mark, Thanks so much for your detailed article!! I was thinking about having my mother and father both take a DNA test. Would it still be beneficial for me to take the test? Or perhaps have my father take it and me and by process of elimination I’ll know what traits are from my mother? Last Q – we are 100% Polish (or so my parents claim). Do you now if any of the tests will get down to that detail or simply state “Eastern European”? Would love to hear your recommendation! I’m mainly looking for detailed ethnicity background… Read more »


I love your info, Mark, so maybe you can answer a question I have not been able to find the answer to. One of my brothers is very dark like my mother (eyes, hair and skin), but my other brother is very fair like my father (freckles and very light blue eyes). Will they show different results, assuming of course they are related.

Linda Goodnight

Hi Mark,

Thank you for this very comprehensive, clear breakdown. It’s the best I’ve found by far! One question I hope you can help with: I have daughters adopted from Ukraine who would love to find/connect with bio family. We’ve been able to find no one through regular means. Do the DNA sites you mention include only American DNA matches? Or do any of them include international data-bases? Thank you!

Micheline Lee

Hi Mark, I’m new at this & recently obtained a DNA kit for myself & one of my sons through MyHeritage (not sure the type of testing), haven’t received the results yet. So grateful I found you, I had no idea of the different tests, Thanks for education. So now I’m confused & hope you can guide me in the right direction. I purchased 2 kits for my daughter-in-laws, so do I need to tests my other son & all my grandsons, or just The one son, since their both from same father? Also, my mother was born in Paris,… Read more »


Thanks Mark. I wanted to find my roots. I was interested in DNA testing but that knowledge was confusing. Thank you for breaking all the essential information down (price, comparisons, pros/cons). It is now less stressful since I’ve read what you’ve researched. Now I feel confident in my decision and won’t have to spend hours navigating through other sites. Thanks again!

Joff elliott


I am an Australian and want to know if I have Scandinavian antecedents from many generations ago. Would an autosomal test be the way to go?
Believe the Scandinavian connection is through my mothers side of the family.
Thank you so much for this detailed and concise article
Which company’ would u recommend and which test would be suitable?
Many thanks


Hi Mark,

Great article. I was looking for an in-depth report that is as specific as possible for determining ethnicity. I don’t care about finding living relatives or connections. As far as I know, my ancestors are all from the middle eastern or indus valley region. Will I be able to get more specific, and which test do you recommend?



Thanks so much, Mark, for your excellent, thorough, and clear article! I still have two questions: 1) I learned that it is illegal in France and Germany to do DNA testing, unless ordered by the law courts. I am wondering how this affects DNA data base for those regions, and if there is a DNA testing company which may have more of a data base for those areas. My mother is from France, with generations on all sides of her known family living for centuries (at least based on paper and in cimeteries) as far back as 1400 in the… Read more »

Veronica Cameron

This was a thorough read! Thanks so much. You’ve helped me make my decision.


Hey, Mark! Lots of information here but I do still have a question haha. Which one would you recommend for a Polynesian/Māori background? I remember reading somewhere that Ancestry doesn’t break down Polynesia and I’m not entirely sure which regions are included in every other site. I know my test will probably come back predominantly European due to my fathers side of the family being from Wales (him and his parents are from Wales but I’m not sure of anyone beyond them) but my mother would also like to do a DNA test and her side of the family is… Read more »


Mark, damn dude this site is awesome. I will definitely order one through your site. I wish all product review sites were like this one!