Family Tree DNA Test Review (FTDNA)

Marc McDermott

It seems like DNA testing is all the rage in genealogy today. More and more companies offer testing, and prices are low enough now that just about anyone can afford it. They’re even advertising it on TV. But for a lot of folks, all the different claims and tests available are just as confusing at the science behind them. Is it worth it? What can it tell you? Is it safe? What about privacy? Is it right for you?

You’re probably asking all of those questions, and a lot more. Let’s take a look a close-up look at FamilyTreeDNA (see latest price), one of the best known and most widely used DNA testing companies, for some answers.

Whether you’re already planning to get tested and want to know more about the process, or if you just want to know what all the buzz is about, this article will fill you in on what you need to know about FamilyTreeDNA.

Who is FamilyTreeDNA?

FamilyTreeDNA is one of several companies that have now offer genealogical DNA testing.

Established in 2000, they have a longer history of offering the service than most, and are highly regarded among the genealogy community.

The company started out offering only Y-DNA, mtDNA, and Cohanim DNA tests, as the company focus was to help people knock down brick walls in their paper research.

It wasn’t until 2010 that the company began to offer autosomal testing with their ‘Family Finder’ product.

In fact, FamilyTreeDNA is the leading choice among professional genealogists when it comes to DNA testing.

Because of this, the company has a very strong community of genealogists connected with it, and there is plenty of online support when it comes to understanding and using your test results.

FamilyTreeDNA is also the testing partner for the National Geographic Genographic Project, a non-profit scientific effort to learn more about world history, ethnic origins, migration through time, and more.

If you have contributed your test results to the Genographic Project, you can have them transferred to FamilyTreeDNA for free, letting you take advantage of all the site has to offer.

Types of DNA tests

There are three types of DNA tests used in genealogy:

  • Autosomal DNA is a mixture of DNA that is passed on from all of your ancestors.
  • YDNA is part of the DNA that only males have, and which is passed down directly from father to son.
  • mtDNA is part of the DNA that is only passed on by mothers to their children (both male and female). More on mtDNA testing for genealogy here.

Because each test checks different parts of your DNA, they can tell you different things.

Some companies, like FamilyTreeDNA, offer a package deal where you can test all three types of DNA at once.

If you want to know more about the science and different types of DNA, check out our guide to the best DNA test for ancestry.

Each test will tell you different things, so picking the best one for you depends a lot on what you want to know.

Autosomal DNA test

An autosomal DNA test:

  • Tells you about all of your ancestors, going back about five generations
  • Helps you connect with living relatives
  • Helps you identify the regions your ancestors came from and your ethnic origins

This test is your best bet for finding close living relatives.

How close?

Because autosomal DNA gets mixed together in every generation, it only provides good information going back about five generations.

That means it can help you find relatives out to about third or maybe 4th cousins.

But chances are, those close relatives are the ones who are researching the same ancestors as you, so that’s exactly who you want to get in touch with.

Autosomal DNA is also perfect if you or one of your parents were adopted, since you may not know any living blood relatives.

When it comes to telling you about the regions your ancestors lived in, your results will come as percentages.

For example, it might say that you have 52% British Isles, 27% Scandinavian, 18% Eastern European, and 3% Native American ancestry.

That can help you identify places to search for more records about your ancestors.


A YDNA test:

  • Follows your direct paternal line (your father’s father’s father, etc) back 25 generations or more
  • Provides information on the specific regions your paternal line came from, and how they migrated over time
  • Is perfect for connecting with other people who have the same surname

Because YDNA tells you about your surname (father’s) line, it is often used to connect with others on a “surname project,” which is a group of people all researching back towards the same ancestor.

There are thousands of surname projects out there, and finding the right one can turn up tons of research that has already been done for you.

YDNA testing is incredibly useful if you have a common surname (Smith, Jones, Lee, etc), because it lets you find out if you are actually related to someone else with the same name.

FamilyTreeDNA offers three different YDNA tests, Y-37, Y-67, and Y-111.

The higher the number, the more of the DNA strand it tests, giving you more exact results and stretching further back in time across more generations. Unfortunately, the more thorough tests cost more, too.

Only males can take a YDNA test (females don’t have a Y-chromosome). But women can still get YDNA results by having a male relative tested (as long as they’re in the paternal line you want tested).

This could include:

  • her father
  • her brothers (or their sons)
  • her father’s brothers (or their sons)
  • but NOT her own son (since he gets his Y-chromosome from his father, not hers)

mtDNA test

An mtDNA test examines part of the DNA that is passed on from a mother to her children, both male and female. The test:

  • Follows your direct maternal line (your mother’s mother’s mother, etc) back 25 generations or more
  • Provides information on the specific regions your maternal line came from, and how they migrated over time

Like the YDNA test, the mtDNA test only gives you information about one single ancestral line, but it goes back a very long way.

It can be used to find living relatives, but they could be as distant as 23rd cousins!

It is more useful as a tool to see where your maternal line lived and migrated in the past.

Like YDNA, you can buy a test for a family member to track down their maternal lines. For example your father’s maternal line.

Bundled Tests

FamilyTreeDNA also offers a variety of test bundles, combining two or more tests at the same time.

If you want to know everything you can, then a bundled test is your best bet.

And by using the bundle, you save money over take the tests separately.

FamilyTreeDNA versus other companies

FamilyTreeDNA is the leading company for genealogical DNA testing.

Why is that?

Because they have more to offer than other companies.

Family Tree DNA vs AncestryDNA

Here are some of the differences between FTDNA and AncestryDNA:

  • FTDNA offers all three types of tests (Ancestry only offers autosomal)
  • FTDNA has a chromosome browser (see below for more on that)
  • FTNDA makes it easier to connect with matches
  • FTDNA doesn’t require an ongoing subscription to get the most out of your results

See my complete comparison of Family Tree DNA vs Ancestry. Also, read my review of AncestryDNA here.

Family Tree DNA vs 23andMe

Here are some of the differences between FTDNA and 23andMe:

  • Offers all three types of tests (23andMe only offers autosomal)
  • Promises to store your results at least 25 years (23andMe doesn’t say how long)
  • Has a much larger and more active online genealogical community
  • Makes it easier to connect with matches

How the testing works

Taking any of the DNA tests offered by FamilyTreeDNA is easy and painless. All you have to do is:

  • decide which test or tests you want
  • go to the FamilyTreeDNA website and buy the test online
  • the test kit gets shipped to you
  • swab your cheek following the simple instructions in the kit
  • mail your kit back to FamilyTreeDNA with the prepaid shipping label included in your kit

And as simple as that, in about six to eight weeks, you will get an email saying your results are ready and they can be viewed online.

Then all you have to do is go to the FamilyTreeDNA website and access your results.

What do results look like?

The results you receive depend on the type of testing that you have done.

Autosomal DNA (“Family Finder”) Results

FamilyTreeDNA’s ‘Family Finder’ test lets you see your results in a variety of charts, graphs, and maps, including:

  • a graph of your personal ethnic breakdown
  • a map display of regions where your ancestors originated
  • a migration map of your ancient ancestors compared to archaeological digs
  • sortable tables of genetic matches
  • contact information for genetic matches who have shared it

You can also use the website’s chromosome browser. This is a tool that lets you graphically compare your results to one or more other people to see which chunks of DNA you share in common. Read more about what is a chromosome browser.

That can help you figure out where someone else fits in your family tree.

YDNA results

The Y-37, Y-67, and Y-111 tests all tell you the same sorts of thing. The higher the number, the greater the detail and accuracy. Your results will include:

  • your paternal haplogroup, which may trace back thousands of years
  • a map of how your paternal line has moved through history
  • sortable lists of matching results
  • access to surname projects that are managed by volunteer genealogy enthusiasts

mtDNA results

FamilyTreeDNA offers two mtDNA tests, Plus and Full Sequence.

They both tell you the same thing, but the Full Sequence is more detailed and accurate. Your results will include:

  • your maternal haplogroup, which may trace back thousands of years
  • a map of how your maternal line has moved through history
  • sortable lists of matching results
  • access to projects that are managed by volunteer genealogy enthusiasts

Connecting with others

One of the most important reasons to have genealogical DNA testing done is so that you can connect with others. This can:

  • help you find long lost family members
  • Give you clues to places to search for records
  • help adoptees locate their biological family
  • let you locate other genealogists researching the same ancestors as you
  • let you connect with a surname project to trace your paternal line back through history (FamilyTreeDNA has almost 10,000 active surname projects – you can even check their website before getting tested to see if your surname is listed)

FamilyTreeDNA lets you directly email any matches you find who have agreed to share their contact info. Because of that direct email access, it is easier to connect through FamilyTreeDNA than any other DNA testing company.

You do have the choice of whether you want your email to be visible to other genealogists or not.

But if you say no, you’re really missing out and you won’t be able to see other people’s contact details.

Sure, you’ll still have your test results, but connecting with others is a huge advantage of DNA testing, and the chances of your email address ending up in the wrong hands are extremely low.

After all, the only people who can see your email are others who have taken the same test as you, and gotten you as a match. And those are exactly the people you want to talk to.

Privacy concerns

Like we already said, sharing your email is optional, but not something to worry about. Only other researchers who have matching DNA will see it.

FamilyTreeDNA takes your privacy very seriously and will never share your test results with any other company.

In fact, one of the reasons they are so popular is because they have a great track record of keeping your information safe, and of never sharing it.

How much does it cost?

​Pricing for the various DNA tests tend to fluctuate throughout the year, so we  don’t want to list them here.

Instead, click here to head on over to their website to see the latest pricing.​

Very often you can find a special or discount being offered, so be sure to check the website for the current price.

The prices include the cost of the kit and the actual lab work. There is an additional small fee for shipping for each kit (a bundle of two or three tests is still just one kit).

The cost of each test is one-time only. There are no subscriptions or ongoing fees required to access your results.

The price you pay during checkout is the total price – there are no other fees for lab work or seeing your results.

Kits can be purchased directly from the FamilyTreeDNA website by clicking here.

Final thoughts

Only you can decide if a genealogical DNA test is right for you, or which test matches your research goals. But if you do decide to go for it, you won’t go wrong by picking FamilyTreeDNA.

I hope this article was helpful. If you have any questions, please ask in the comments below.​

About the Author


  1. Brandon W Hogan

    I could not have been more disappointed with ftDNA. I found the information provided from the Y-DNA test to be less than useless and honestly frustrating. You don’t get a breakdown or explanation of tour results-you get mostly raw data that looks like someone fell asleep on a keyboard. The only way to make sense of anything is to spend hours upon hours learning the finer details of genetics or paying more money for only *some* of the information other companies like include with their initial (lower) price. Also, the website is not at all user friendly and the family tree tool is a joke. I can’t advise against ftDNA strongly enough. You pay more, get less and get asked to pay again. I can’t imagine why anyone would be so impressed with their service.

    • Marc McDermott

      Hi Brandon. I should note that Y-DNA testing through FTDNA is usually done for the matching system and is mainly used at some point to get farther back on your paternal line.

  2. Louise

    I have been told my father died when I was young and decided to do a dna test with his half sister would it show up we are related

    • Marc McDermott

      Yes you should get a pretty strong match with his half-sister. You should expect to share 492–1315 cm with her.

  3. J. B.

    23andme does offer all three types of tests, and in my opinion has more accurate and user-friendly results than FamilyTreeDNA.

    • Marc McDermott

      The mtDNA and YDNA testing at 23andMe is not the same as FTDNA. 23andMe shows broad haplogroup info but not matches which is kind of the whole point for genealogy purposes.

  4. Alex

    Hey Mark,
    I see you said FTDNA can take my raw information from another provider. How much is the transfer fee?

    • Marc McDermott

      To transfer and just see matches is free. You can pay $19 to get the various tools such as the Chromosome Browser, myOrigins, and ancientOrigins. Note they only accept transfers from 23andMe, Ancestry and MyHeritage.

  5. Michelle

    I have no info on my father’ side. I have many 1st -2nd cousins on several web sites that I have no idea how we are related. My 1st cousin, (my mom’s sister’s daughter and closest living relative on my mom’s side) is willing to do a dna test, would I be able to decipher who Is from my father’s side by ruling out who we are both related to on our mom’s side?

    • Marc McDermott

      Which websites do you have the 1st-2nd cousins?

  6. Sandra westbrook

    Im a woman. Will the test show my fathers dna stuff?

    • Marc McDermott

      Yes the basic autosomal test will.

  7. Val

    Mark Ive just learned about family tree never had heard about it and I’ve been slowly learning can you tell me about family tree as someone suggested that you get far more accurate matches ? I’m still learning about and apparently family tree shows far more results. I have three submissions of dna test through and doubt I’d like to repeat the process also laws have changed with submission of dna samples. Is it possible to transfer my results from ancestry to family tree and would the results be far more accurate ?

    • Marc McDermott

      Hi Val. Yes you can download your raw DNA from ancestry and upload to FTDNA for a very small fee.

  8. Martha Carey

    Hello! I’ve been researching and understanding the various DNA tests. I plan on buying the foundational test; Autosomal DNA Family Finder at Family Tree DNA. Y-DNA question: I have no children, my father is deceased and I have no brothers, (I have a nephew who is my sister’s only son). Would I need my nephew’s saliva to fulfill the Y-DNA test? If so, I’m not certain that he would follow-through with doing the test. Is the Y-DNA test still worth purchasing for my own paternity information? Please clarify the same with the mtDNA, which I am more eager to learn about. Thanks! MC

    • Marc McDermott

      Hi Martha. No your nephew would not work for ydna because he is your sister’s son. Your sister did not get a Y chromosome from your father. So for you to do a ydna test, you’d have to go a generation back. Did your father have any brothers? If not, then your grandfather? Then you’d need a male descendant from one of them. Make sense?

  9. Dominique Janssens

    My daughter wants to offer a DNA test to her mother, to better understand her mother’s genealogy. However, if she took the test herself, would it give her the same information about her motherline? I have a pretty good idea about my fatherline (10 gens). And what test should she take to get her mother’s fatherline info? Thank you.

    • Marc McDermott

      It’d be better if her mother took the test. For her mother’s paternal line, the best option is a ydna test from a male descendant. otherwise her only option is an autosomal. go with ftdna or ancestry.

  10. Meg

    Hey Mark,
    I’ve read your post, and some of the comments and I’m a bit confused. I would like to get the bundle of all 3 tests from FTDNA but I’m not seeing it on their site, I see the Maternal tests and the Paternal tests bundled with the Autosomal. Could you proved some insight as to which of their tests is the 3 tests in 1?

    • Chris

      Hi Meg
      I didn’t see it at first either. Go down to the bottom of the home page under “About” and click on “products”.

    • Marc McDermott

      The Y-DNA test can only be taken by males. So if you’re the one being tested, you can only get autosomal + mtdna

  11. Sydnee

    Hello Mark:

    I apologize if this turns out to be a duplicate comment. I don’t think my first one processed.

    I am going to purchase the Family Tree Y-DNA test. My dilemma is I don’t know which one, Y-37 or Y-67. I have been researching family on my father’s side for years, but have no luck pass my third great grandfather. We tease that he just dropped to earth one day. Do you feel that the Y-37 would be sufficient.


    • Marc McDermott

      The 67 will give you more matches. If budget is an issue, you can always upgrade your test in the future using the same sample that will be stored at FTDNA.

  12. Sydnee

    Hello Mark:

    I am seriously considering the Family Tree Y-DNA test. If I go with the Y-37 test, how many generations will that give me? With all the research I have done for my father’s side, I can only go back to my 3rd great grandfather. Or doesn’t that have anything to do with generations..



    • Marc McDermott

      The yDNA will give you lots of matches on your direct paternal line but you still have to do the work to make the connections. The haplogroup info goes back thousands of years.

  13. Christina

    My mother has, for years, expressed her desire to know her ancestry. Even before there was science to provide some of this information, she was intrigued at the possibility. I have narrowed my selection to Family Tree and Ancestry. Quite frankly the only reason ancestry is still on the list is because they claim to have 150 areas that they can trace to. However, I am wondering if their claim is a bit of an embellishment as some of the areas on their list seem impossible to breakdown the way they claim. For example, they show England being broken down into specific regions. If this tight of a narrowing is possible, of course my mother would love that. (the monthly membership, on the other hand, is not desirable) I am wondering what your thoughts are in regards to the claim that Ancestry can narrow to 150 regions. Thank you so much. Christina

    • Marc McDermott

      I don’t think ancestry is quite there yet with confidently predicting micro-regions. I’d go with FTDNA.

  14. Bob

    Hello Mark.

    Do you know how many regions FTDNA break down to? Thank you!


    • Marc McDermott

      The latest number is 24 I believe.

  15. Danielle

    This page seems to be out of date – it says 23andMe only offers one test, but elsewhere it says they offer all three. It sounds like FTDNA is much more advanced for the non-autosomal tests, but for the automosal test is there much of a difference? I’m thinking since this is a gift (i.e. I’m not sure that they’ll like it) and bundling doesn’t save much money, it might be advisable to buy the significantly cheaper 23andMe product to start, and if my parents are interested in more detailed maternal/paternal results I can then purchase them the individual FTDNA add-on tests. This is especially true if the only difference in the automosal testing is the database the raw data is compared against, in which case I could even load the 23andMe autosomal test results to the FTDNA site at that time. Do you agree? Thanks!

    • Marc McDermott

      Hi Danielle. 23andMe does offer all 3 tests, but the yDNA and mtDNA testing is much too broad compared to FTDNA which is why I don’t even mention it. Any of the autosomal tests on this page will be great, but they do having different testing methods as well as population databases which they match you against for ethnicity estimates. Personally I find FTDNA autosomal test to be the most accurate but you can’t go wrong with any of the ones listed above.

  16. Susan Fleming

    Hello Mark, Great information. I want to do a search on my background and for my daughter and me. My question is: her dad was adopted and we never knew anything about his natural born parents, medical history or any background. What test(s) would you recommend best for me to get for us to find out more information. He is deceased so he will not have any answers for us!!

    I have liked what I have read about Family Tree and the partnership with National Geographic.

    Thank you.

    Susan Fleming

    • Marc McDermott

      Hi Susan. That’s a tough one because you may have to do some estimating for your daughter since an autosomal test wont tell her what came from you vs her father. All depends on her father’s heritage and how it differs from yours. But you can make some educated guesses based on your DNA results. I’d go with FTDNA for sure. Also, I believe Nat Geo changed their testing partner recently and it’s no longer FTDNA.

  17. Scott

    Hello Mark,

    Thanks for the great reviews. I’ve narrowed doesn’t between family tree and living. Leaning towards family. I like family tree because it had all three tests seem the most accurate. However, my roots are from Ireland, Britain and Scotland so living is appealing. I guess my choice is between general world accuracy vs. specific region accurately. What are your thoughts? Thanks

    • Marc McDermott

      Hey Scott. I think either would work for you. Really depends on your goals.

  18. Janette Vogel

    Thank you for all the information so that I can sort out what tests Od like to have done and where to get them! It seemed very difficult at first but your information helped me sort it out. Thanks again!

    • Marc McDermott

      You’re welcome, Janette!


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